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Showing posts from February, 2013

Highway Development in India

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India had a network of roads in the ancient times. The development of the highways in the India, took at different times in varying speed. The road development can be discussed taking the different phases of times from the history.
 Ancient Times: The excavation of the Mohn-Jodaro and Harappa civilization shows the traces of the roads in the ancient times, in a period of 35th to 25th B.C. The Aryan Period and road construction: There are the various scriptures available to read about the road development in the India in the Aryan period.  The Indian scripture named "Arthasasthra", written by the the Kautilya, prime minister of the Chandra Gupta Mourya, discusses the rules laid down for the depth of road construction for different purposes in the 4th century B.C. There were punishments for obstruction of roads.  The emperor Ashoka has improved the quality of …

Functions and Testing of Various pavement components/layers(Overview)

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Functions of various components of Pavement: There are four pavement layers: 1.Sub-grade 2.Sub-base 3.Base 4.Surface course Functions of each layer are described as below: ·Sub-Grade : ·Functions: The load is transferred by the sub-grade effectively to the earth mass. However the locally available earth is used to construct the sub-grade but it becomes necessary that the sub-grade should be of required strength. ·Testing: This makes it necessary to check the strength characteristics of the sub-grade by using the various methods. Here is the list of the tests that are employed to check the strength of the sub-grade: a.California bearing ratio test.
b.California resistance value test.
c.Tri-axial shear test.
d.Plate load test.

California bearing ratio test is a kind of penetration test, in which we get the value of the California bearing ratio of the given soil sample. The test can also be performed in the field to take the in-situ measurements. 
The value is used to design the thickness o…

Modes of Transportation

Modes of Transportation: If you think of, there are three basic modes of transportation, by water, by air third by land. The land has provided us the scope of Roadways and railways, air has provided the airways and the water has provided the scope of the waterways. The roadways include all type of the roads, National highways, state highways, Major district roads, Village roads, etc. It includes all the feeder roads. Railways is generally used for the long travels, but the Metro railways are used for the short travels. The waterways are used by the cargo ships, or other boats, on the oceans, rivers, seas, canals or rivers wherever possible. The airways are used by the aircrafts and the helicopters. So the major modes of the transportation are : (1) Waterways (2) Railways (3) Roadways/Highways (4) Airways The transportation by the airways is the fastest among the four and by waterways it is slowest. Travel by air also provides more comfort. The transportation by the waterways is…