Thursday, August 9, 2012

Surveying - Primary Division

Introduction:
Surveying is an art of determination of the relative position of the points on above or below the surface of the earth by some direct or indirect linear and angular measurements.
Leveling is a branch of surveying in which we locate the points at some given elevation or determine the elevation of the given points.

Main objective of the surveying is to prepare the maps or plan of a given area. The term map is used when we have to prepare the horizontal projection of a relatively larger area on a paper sheet.
The term 'plan' is used when the area is relatively smaller.

Primary Division of Surveying
Earth is an ellipsoid. There is difference of about 43km between the diameter of the earth along the equatorial plane and that along the polar axis. When we draw a triangular traverse on a level surface  then the triangle formed is known as a spherical triangle and the angles are known as the spherical angles.
When we draw the chord of a 12km level arc the difference in the length of the arc and the corresponding chord is only about 1cm.
Now according to the magnitude of the area and the required precision we can classify the surveying in two parts:
(1) Plane Surveying   (2) Geodetic Surveying

(1) Plane surveying
In plane surveying we consider the earth surface as the plane surface. The error due to the curvature is neglected.
The level lines are straight lines and all the plumb lines are parallel to each other.
It is used for relatively small areas of a magnitude of near about 256km2.

(2) Geodetic Surveying
In geodetic surveying the curvature of the earth is taken into consideration, so all the level lines are taken as the curved lines.
To get precise results it becomes necessary to adopt the geodetic surveying in the areas larger than the magnitude of about 260km2.
It is more precise than the plane surveying. The maps are prepared using the geodetic surveying.
It is also known as the trigonometric surveying.

Sunday, August 5, 2012

Transportation Engineering


Importance  :

Transportation adds to the economic, industrial, social and cultural development of a country. Transportation is very important for the economic development of any region since every thing/commodity produced whether it is food, fruits or industrial products needs transport at all stages from production to distribution. In the production stage, transportation is required for carrying raw materials like seeds, manure, coal, steel etc. In the distribution stage, transportation is required from the production centers viz; farms and factories to the marketing centers and later to the retailers and the consumers for distribution.
The inadequate transportation facilities retard the process of social & economic development of the country. The adequacy of transportation system of a country indicated its economic and social development.

a) Economic activity and Transport:   The importance of transportation in economic activity is to be found in its effects on both human wants for goods and satisfaction through production and distribution. While discussing the general effects of transportation, it may be said that the increased productivity and its efficient transportation can lower the cost of products. Transportation cost is an influencing factor on consumer price of commodities.

b) Social Effects of Transportation: Progress follows the lines of transportation. People have always settled along the river shores, road sides and near railway stations. In the present concept of transportation network, this kind of ribbon development is greatly discouraged. Attempts are being made to decentralize the population centers away from the sides of the main transportation routes. Thus town planning patterns are rapidly changing. To avoid congestion around the populated areas suburban living and industrial enterprises are developing.  These suburbs and satellite towns, acting as counter-magnets should be linked up with rapid transit systems. The various social effects of transportation may be further elaborated as follows:

1) Concentration of population into urban areas : The improved transportation facilities brings prosperity to the urban population. The prosperity and employment opportunities of the urban area attract the population from the other areas resulting in enhanced economic activities.
(Note (Source - wiki):  Urban area:  For the Census of India 2011, the definition of urban area is as follows:
  1. All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc.
  2. All other places which satisfied the following criteria:
  1. A minimum population of 5,000;
  2. At least 75% of the male main working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and
  3. A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km.      ))
2) Reducing sectionalism :  Improved transportation has  reduced the sectionalism within the country and also outside the country. Under-developed colonies and tribes are improving their living conditions since the distances have apparently been reduced with reduction in travel time. More frequent  travels in other parts of the country and outside the country tend to increase the knowledge of the people from the other sections of the society. The international understanding for better peace and order also improves with efficient network of transportation.

3) Aspect of safety, law and order : Transport facilities are essential for rushing aids to areas affected by an emergency. To maintain law and order at home, it is required to have an efficient system of transport network. To defend the borders with the foreign territories, transport facilities are needed connecting the farthest border area from the headquarters or capitals. At times, this alone may be a sufficient reason to develop a transport network which may not involve any economic and social benefit directly.

4) Rural Development. : Over 75% of the population of India living in the villages, the development in the urban centers alone do not indicate the overall development of the country. With the improved transportation facilities in the rural areas, there could be faster development of the rural centers. The fertilizers and other inputs for agriculture and small scale industries could reach the rural population easily and similarly the products can be sold at the nearest marketing centers for more remunerative price resulting in faster economic growth. With increased facilities for education. health care and other social needs in the villages, the urge for the migration to urban centers decreases, thus helping in balance development of the country.

Thursday, August 2, 2012

Civl Engineering - An Introduction

If you search the wikipedia then the definition of of Civil Engineering is  "Civil Engineering is a branch of Engineering which deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and natural environment including works like roads, bridges, canal, dams and buildings."
In earlier times there was only one discipline and that is Military Engineering. The military people use to construct the varoius kinds of structures like bridges and bunkers etc for their own purpose.
To dinstinguish the same works done for the public from the works done by military it was named like Civil Engineering.
Civil Engineering is the oldest trade after the Military Engineering. It is sub divided into various sub-disciplines
1. Environmental Engineering
2. Geotechnical Engineering
3. Structural Engineering
4. Transportation Engineering
5. Municipal Engineering/ Urban Engineering
6. Water Resource Engineering
7. Materials Engineering
8. Surveying

Some people who got famous after doing some good works in the field of Civil Engineering are:

1. John Smeaton (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792)
He is known as the father of Civl Engineering. He designed varoius civil engineering structures. You can find more about him in wikipedia. Here is the link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Smeaton.

2. Thomas Telford.(9th August 1757 – 2 September 1834(1834-09-02) )
He was a Scottish Civil Engineer, Architect, and was elected as the first president of the Institution of Civil Engineers. He gave some very useful technique of Highway Construction, Known as the Telford Construction.
3. Dr. Karl TErzaghi  (October 2, 1883[1] – October 25, 1963)
He was an Austrian Civil Engineer and Geologist. He is known as the father of the Soil Mechanis. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_von_Terzaghi. He wrote the book on the Soil mechanics in early 20s named  Erdbaumechanik. He gave the concept of effective stress.

When someone get admission in the college for a graduate degree in Civil Engineering then no one is going to explain the Civil Engineering like this. I like the Wikipedia for many such reasons.
I am graduate in Civil Engineering practical knowledge comes from the field and until someone don't know the practical use of things they are hard to grasp.
I learned Solid mechanics, Hydraulics and then soil mechanics but never knew what is it that I am studying for. All the uses are also written in the book itself but for me until I don't see it in work thorugh my own eyes it hard for me to understand.
If you are the person who have the same problem then may be we share the same problems and it will be productive for us to discuss the things here.
I am always interested in the broad picture of everything and until someone don't show me that I am not interested. It is boring for me to discuss the design procedure of a beam until I don't know the use of it, how much I will  save or earn like that.
I think it will be entertaining if you post some querries about any topic of Civil engineering here and I will be happy to discuss it with you.
I will soon come up with some interesting stuff on this subject so please be patient. I just created the blog 2 days ago and I want to put here some useful stuff only.
Thank you for your time.

GATE Syllabus -Civil Engineering 2012

SYLLABUS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING (CE)
GATE 2012
Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra:

Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.

Calculus:

Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems,

Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative,

Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional

derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.

Differential equations:

First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations

with constant coefficients, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, Initial and boundary value

problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations

and Laplace equation.

Complex variables:

Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.

Probability and Statistics:

Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median,

mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial

distributions.

Numerical Methods:

Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by

trapezoidal and Simpson's rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Structural Engineering

Mechanics:

Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams. Simple stress and

strain relationship: Stress and strain in two dimensions, principal stresses, stress

transformation, Mohr's circle. Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses,

unsymmetrical bending, shear centre. Thin walled pressure vessels, uniform torsion,

buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.

Structural Analysis:

Analysis of statically determinate trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames,

displacements in statically determinate structures and analysis of statically

indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods, analysis by displacement methods

(slope deflection and moment distribution methods), influence lines for determinate and

indeterminate structures. Basic concepts of matrix methods of structural analysis.

Concrete Structures:

Concrete Technology- properties of concrete, basics of mix design. Concrete designbasic

working stress and limit state design concepts, analysis of ultimate load capacity

and design of members subjected to flexure, shear, compression and torsion by limit

state methods. Basic elements of prestressed concrete, analysis of beam sections at

transfer and service loads.

Steel Structures:

Analysis and design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns,

column bases. Connections- simple and eccentric, beam'column connections, plate

girders and trusses. Plastic analysis of beams and frames.

Geotechnical Engineering

Soil Mechanics:

Origin of soils, soil classification, three-phase system, fundamental definitions,

relationship and interrelationships, permeability & seepage, effective stress principle,

consolidation, compaction, shear strength.

Foundation Engineering:

Sub-surface investigations- scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, penetration tests, plate

load test. Earth pressure theories, effect of water table, layered soils. Stability of slopesinfinite

slopes, finite slopes. Foundation types-foundation design requirements. Shallow

foundations-bearing capacity, effect of shape, water table and other factors, stress

distribution, settlement analysis in sands & clays. Deep foundations pile types, dynamic

& static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands & clays, negative skin friction.

Water Resources Engineering

Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics:

Properties of fluids, principle of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and

corresponding equations, potential flow, applications of momentum and Bernoulli's

equation, laminar and turbulent flow, flow in pipes, pipe networks. Concept of boundary

layer and its growth. Uniform flow, critical flow and gradually varied flow in channels,

specific energy concept, hydraulic jump. Forces on immersed bodies, flow

measurements in channels, tanks and pipes. Dimensional analysis and hydraulic

modeling. Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles and specific speed of pumps and

turbines.

Hydrology:

Hydrologic cycle, rainfall, evaporation, infiltration, stage discharge relationships, unit

hydrographs, flood estimation, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing. Well

hydraulics.

Irrigation:

Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration. Crop water requirements. Design of: lined

and unlined canals, waterways, head works, gravity dams and spillways. Design of

weirs on permeable foundation. Types of irrigation system, irrigation methods. Water

logging and drainage, sodic soils.

Environmental Engineering

Water requirements:

Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking

water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for

surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment,

quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of

wastewater, sludge disposal, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater

treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary

treatment Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.

Air Pollution:

Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution

control, air quality standards and limits.

Municipal Solid Wastes:

Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered

systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and

disposal).

Noise Pollution:

Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control

of noise pollution.

Transportation Engineering

Highway Planning:

Geometric design of highways, testing and specifications of paving materials, design of

flexible and rigid pavements.

Traffic Engineering:

Traffic characteristics, theory of traffic flow, intersection design, traffic signs and signal

design, highway capacity.

Surveying

Importance of surveying, principles and classifications, mapping concepts, coordinate

system, map projections, measurements of distance and directions, leveling, theodolite

traversing, plane table surveying, errors and adjustments, curves

Solved- Traffic Flow Distribution among Routes at Equilibrium

Hi, Prob: There are two routes, such that the time consumed is given by the following.  t1 = 15 + 0.005q1 ,  t2 = 12 + 0.003q2,  in p...